Multiple sclerosis patients who take Rituximab have a better response to the COVID-19 vaccine if they have a higher B cell count.
Immune cells in the meninges come from bone marrow in the skull and migrate to the brain through special channels without passing through the blood. These immune cells help to guard the brain and spinal cord against inflammation and infection.
Recovered coronavirus patients show a wide range of immune responses following the infection, with about half from a current study showing sustained antibodies two weeks later. Results indicate which parts of the virus are most effective at triggering the immune responses.
A new mathematical model examined the immune response in patients with coronavirus. The findings suggest adaptive immune response may kick in before target immune cells are depleted, slowing the infection. The interaction of the innate and adaptive immune response may explain why some with coronavirus experience a second wave infection, appearing to get better before the symptoms return and get worse. Other studies have shown those who received immunosuppressants at the start of infection had a better clinical outcome than those who did not.
A key finding in the origins of lupus has been discovered. In those with systemic lupus erythematosus, B cells are abnormally activated. This results in the production of antibodies which react against the patient's own tissue, causing a range of symptoms including rashes, joint pain, and fatigue.
Capsular polysaccharide A (PSA), an envelope molecule, may help to boost the immune system and protect against potentially fatal neuroinflammation associated with Herpes Simplex Encephalitis (HSE). Mice given PSA survived exposure to a lethal herpes simplex viral infection, while those not treated with the probiotic did not, despite both groups being treated with a common antiviral used to treat HSE.
A new study reveals the intestine as a source of immune cells that help reduce neuroinflammation in patients with multiple sclerosis. Increasing the number of these cells helps block inflammation entirely, researchers report.
Researchers discover brain like activity in the immune system. The Nature study reveals T cells in the immune system transfer dopamine to B cells, providing motivation for these cells to produce antibodies and battle infection. The researchers hope their findings will help develop treatments to make immune response to vaccines and infections faster, and slow autoimmune conditions.