Researchers monitored brain activity and eye movement of basketball fans watching March Madness games to study how people process surprise.
The activity of the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) during motivated control reflects the calculation of surprise. The findings take cognitive control research to new heights by providing insight into how the dACC works as a component of a brain network that supports motivated behaviors.
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Combining neuroimaging data with machine learning, researchers report musical pleasure depends on a dynamic interplay between prospective and retrospective states of expectation.
Surprise, researchers say, not only has effects on the beliefs of an individual, but also collective effects on the content of culture. As a result, surprise can lead people to change attitudes, shift preconceptions and inspire social change.