Smokers may have reduced neuroimmune function compared to their non-smoking peers. Researchers report restoring the immune system may benefit smokers. Immune dysfunction is linked to cognitive dysfunction.
A new study reveals smokers have lower levels of Baceroids in their microbiome. In contrast, the levels of Bacteriods were the same level in vapers as in non-smokers. Decreased Bacteriod levels are associated with obesity and Chron's disease.