At any age, regular exercise or physical activity helps to maintain brain function during old age. However, maintaining a frequent workout schedule throughout life was linked to better mental acuity, memory, and cognition later in life.
Adopting a healthy lifestyle, in particular, a healthy diet was associated with a slower than average decline in memory over ten years in older adults, even those with the APOE4 Alzheimer's associated genetic variant.
Frequent moderate to vigorous exercise is linked to better cognition and brain power during middle age. This intensity level was associated with better working memory and mental processes. Reducing the intensity to lower intensity or sedentary behavior for 6-7 minutes per day was associated with poorer cognitive performance.
Adult exposure to antibiotics appears to be linked to an increased risk of developing an inflammatory bowel disorder, including Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. The risk appears to be cumulative, greatest around two years after use, and for antibiotics that target gut infections.