Study identifies a neural pathway associated with error monitoring and attention function in some psychiatric disorders such as ADHD, ASD, and schizophrenia. Researchers say the pathway could be modulated with the help of transcranial magnetic stimulation or transcranial direct current stimulation.
Compared to adults, children continue to explore other options than using knowledge to capitalize on reward, to see if the value has changed. Children approach exploration systematically to make sure they don't miss anything.
The activity of the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) during motivated control reflects the calculation of surprise. The findings take cognitive control research to new heights by providing insight into how the dACC works as a component of a brain network that supports motivated behaviors.
Patients with mood and anxiety disorders have abnormally low activation in brain areas associated with cognitive and emotional control. Brain scans also revealed hyperactivity in brain areas linked to the processing of emotional thoughts.
Neuroimaging can be used to assess a person's risk of suicidal behavior. Those with mood disorders, a history of suicidal thoughts, and those with a history of suicide attempts have less connectivity in the cognitive control network. They also have reduced connectivity between the cognitive control network and the default mode network.
Researchers are embarking on a new project to better understand the mechanisms of cognitive control.They hope to generate a specific mathematical model for each individual's brain activity in order to understand how cognitive control differs between people.