Immaturity of the gut microbiome and epithelial barriers in the gut and choroid plexus appear to play a significant role in neonatal susceptibility to meningitis.
B. longum APC1472 reduces blood glucose levels and reduces weight gain in mouse models. The bacteria also keep ghrelin, a hormone associated with hunger, and the stress hormone cortisol in check.
Study reveals the gut microbiome directly influences the makeup of the human immune system. Researchers found the concentration of different types of immune cells in the blood change in the presence of different bacterial strains in the gut.
Researchers discovered a bacteria of the genus Bartonella releases a protein, which they dubbed BafA, which stimulates the production of new blood vessels that support bacterial lesions. Bartonella henselae causes cat scratch disease. The findings provide new insight into the mechanisms by which infectious bacteria can produce lesions.
Rat study suggests prenatal microbial exposure influences neurodevelopmental outcomes.
Vaping e-cigarettes modulates the oral microbiome and increases the abundance of pathobionts. The aerosols in vaping products alter the host response, prompting gum inflammation and making epithelial cells in the mouth susceptible to infection.
Glycerol monolaurate (GML), a compound found in human breast milk, fights against the effects of harmful bacteria while allowing beneficial bacteria to thrive. GML also inhibits inflammation in epithelial cells, helping to prevent both bacterial and viral infections of the gut. GML is 200 times higher in human breast milk than cow milk. Researchers propose adding GML to infant formula and cow milk given to small children.
A healthy and diverse microbiome is essential for quickly clearing viral infections in the nervous system to prevent risks associated with multiple sclerosis. Mice with lower gut bacteria had weaker immune responses and were unable to eliminate viruses, leading to worsening paralysis. Those treated with antibiotics before infection had fewer microglia.
10(Z)-hexadecenoic acid, a fatty acid found in the soil based bacterium Mycobacterium vaccae, interacts with immune cells to inhibit pathways that drive inflammation and increases resilience to stress. Researchers say the findings could bring us one step closer to developing a microbe-based "stress vaccine".