Telomere lengthening resulted in structural changes in the brain, including cortical thickening. By contrast, telomere shortening is associated with gray matter reduction, specifically in the precuneus.
HIV can persist in the nervous system, even when the virus is suppressed. Even when the virus is suppressed, neurocognitive problems associated with the infection can persist.
Dozens of genes previously believed to have similar roles across different organisms are actually unique to humans. The genetic codes are for transcription factors, which help control gene activity. The findings may help to explain how humans evolved.
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Using artificial intelligence, researchers discover mutations in noncoding regions of the human genome that may result in autism. The noncoding mutations are associated with altered gene regulation in children with ASD. Additionally, the mutations affect gene expression in the brain and genes already linked to autism, such as those responsible for neuron development and migration.
A new study identifies 956 genetic variants that contribute to an increased risk of insomnia. Researchers also identified the brain areas, biological processes and cell types that mediate the genetic risk of insomnia.