Researchers identified key alterations in gene expression and structure of the developing human brain that makes it unique among other animal species.
Exposure to violence and childhood adversity has a negative effect on the developing brain. Neuroimaging reveals adolescents who experienced adversity and violence as children had reduced connectivity between the amygdala and the prefrontal cortex. However, social support may act as a buffer and reduce the negative effects of early life stress.
The medial prefrontal cortex persistently encodes value based decision variables.
A pathway linking the basal ganglia to the thalamus enhances sensory discrimination and is used to suppress 'background noise'. The pathway, which is controlled by the prefrontal cortex, selectively suppresses sensory input as it flows to the thalamus.
Researchers evaluate the psychological and neurobiological impact of teen cannabis use. The findings, to be presented at the 13th Annual Canadian Neuroscience Meeting, will cover how cannabis contributes to cognitive impairments, psychosis and deficits in decision making in adolescents.
A cluster of epigenetic marks in an enhancer at IGF2 could enhance dopamine synthesis associated with psychosis in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. The findings may help in devising more effective treatments and screening strategies for both disorders.
The formation of prefrontal cortex dendritic spine formation sustains the remission of depressive related symptoms and behaviors following ketamine treatment by restoring lost spines.
Increased kynurenic acid production has been implicated in the pathology of schizophrenia. The findings provide a new target for cell-specific treatments that help reduce the production of kynurenic acid and reduce symptoms of schizophrenia.
Contrary to popular belief that brain changes begin to normalize immediately after ceasing alcohol consumption, a new study reveals damage to the brain continues during the first weeks of abstinence.