Astrocytes are not uniform, as previously believed, but take distinct molecular forms depending on their location in the cerebral cortex. Astrocytes also organize in layers in similar ways to neurons.
The receptor protein ACE2 and the TMPRSS2 protease that can activate SARS-CoV-2 entry are expressed in cells on the inner lining of the nose. Mucus producing goblet cells and ciliated cells in the nose have the highest levels of both proteins, making them the most likely initial infection route for coronavirus. Additional key entry points were found in the cells of the eye's cornea and the intestines. This suggests other points of infection could be via the tear ducts and through fecal-oral transmission.
Researchers discovered all neuroblastomas arise from a single type of embryonic cell called sympathoblasts. The findings could lead to new avenues of treatment for the aggressive childhood cancer.
The longer the lifespan of a species, the slower the rate of mutations occur. The findings support the long-standing theory that somatic mutations play a role in aging.