A single shot of ketamine administered to heavy drinkers following reactivation of their drinking memories led to a rapid decrease in the urge to drink. The effect lasted for over nine months.
Contractions of the diaphragm muscles during hiccuping evoke a significant response in the brain's cortex, causing two large brainwaves followed by a third. The third brainwave is similar to that evoked by noise.
The human brain can recognize a familiar tune within 100 milliseconds of the onset of sound.
The mode of delivery at birth is a significant factor in the composition of gut bacteria. Children born via cesarean section have reduced levels of 'good' bacteria and an increased number of pathogens linked to the hospital environment.
Sertraline (Zoloft), a commonly prescribed SSRI antidepressant, may not be as effective at treating depression within 6 weeks as previously thought. However, the drug is effective for treating anxiety symptoms.
Galanin expressing neurons are selectively active during rebound sleep. The expression of galanin increases after neuronal activity and sleep deprivation. The neuropeptide plays a critical role in sleep homeostasis.
Children who are picky eaters are at an increased risk of developing anorexia during their teen years. Those who overeat as children are at higher risk of binge eating disorders. Persistent undereating during childhood increased the risk of developing anorexia in teen years by 6% for girls.
Vulnerability to extremism isn't just a matter of being psychologically susceptible to moral influence. It is also a matter of being susceptible to sustained exposure to settings that enable extremist socialization. A new study sets five categories of determinants which generate, or suppress, the risk of individuals acquiring extremist beliefs and engaging in extremist behaviors. The study proposes a framework for tackling lone-actor terrorist risks and the emergence of radicalizing environments.
Eating dark chocolate can help reduce anxiety and improve symptoms of clinical depression. People who ate dark chocolate in two 24-hour periods had 70% reduced odds of reporting depressive symptoms than those who did not eat chocolate. However, milk chocolate did not produce the same effect. Dark chocolate contains phenylethylamine, a neuromodulator implicated in mood regulation.