As novel visual patterns become familiar, stark changes occur in the visual cortex. Gamma rhythms give way to low-wave beta waves, and the neural activity switches from PV neurons in favor of inhibitory SOM neurons.
Reducing the excitation-inhibition ratio by diminishing excitability of pyramidal neurons or increasing excitability of PV neurons led mice to spend more time engaged in social encounters. Researchers believe the excitation-inhibition balance may play a key role in autism and normal social behavior.
Researchers have discovered a link between specific neural circuits to distinct behavioral symptoms of depression. The study, published in Cell, reports altering the networks helped to improve symptoms such as social withdrawal and helplessness.