The left and right brain areas are more similar in those with ASD. Reduced asymmetry was identified in cortical thickness across various brain regions in those on the autism spectrum.
Shorter sleep duration can increase the risk of children developing depression, anxiety, and cognitive problems. Children who routinely suffered sleep disruptions or shorter sleep durations had reduced brain volume in the orbitofrontal cortex, prefrontal cortex, precuneus, supramarginal gyrus, and temporal cortex.
Humans and mice use inference skills to solve problems in a remarkably similar manner.
Researchers have identified a novel neurotransmitter system in the brain. The system signals transmission of innate olfactory information to areas of the brain associated with emotional processing via the TAAR5 receptor. The findings could help in the development of new treatments for depression and schizophrenia.
Neuroimaging study sheds light on what drove the evolutionary development of human creativity.
Chromosome 16p11.2 duplication impacts several different inhibitory neuron types that use GABA in brain areas that are dysfunctional in schizophrenia, including the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, and amygdala. The chromosome 16p11.2 duplication also resulted in cognitive and social deficits that are symptomatic of schizophrenia.
Study reveals the role the orbitofrontal cortex plays in individual differences to alcohol preference. The findings shed new light on how some are more prone to alcohol use disorder than others.
Analysis of over 2,000 brain scans revealed evidence of highly reproducible sex differences in the volume of different regions of the brain. On average, females had greater cortical volume in the medial and lateral prefrontal cortex, orbitofrontal cortex, superior temporal cortex, and lateral parietal cortex. Males had increased volume in the ventral temporal and occipital brain regions. Gene expression data suggest the potential role of sex chromosomes that contribute to the differences.
Study identifies neurons in command of guiding adaptive behaviors.
Neurons in the orbitofrontal cortex play a critical role in encoding subjective values. Activation of these neurons leads directly to the choice of one option over another.