The retrieval of mitochondria via a feedback loop is vital to sustaining synaptic transmission.
Mitochondria regulate how neural stem cells become neurons during brain development. The findings may help explain how humans developed larger brains during evolution and how mitochondrial defects lead to some neurodevelopmental disorders.
In both human cell and mouse models of Huntington's disease, RNA from mitochondria was misplaced within spiny projection neurons. The stray RNAs, which looked different to cells than RNA derived from the cell nucleus, trigger an immune reaction that can lead to striatal cell type vulnerability.
Exposing mice to THC, researchers noted persistent activation of mitochondrial cannabinoid receptors located within astrocytes resulted in a cascade of molecular processing that led to dysfunctional glucose metabolism. The ability of astrocytes to transform glucose into "food" for neurons was reduced. The reduction resulted in a compromise in neural function, with a harmful impact on behavior. Specifically, social interactions were reduced for 24 hours post cannabis exposure.
Humanin, a peptide encoded in mitochondria, appears to have a beneficial impact on both health and longevity in both humans and animals. Higher levels of humanin in the body are associated with longer life spans and a reduced risk of neurodegenerative disorders, like Alzheimer's disease.
Enhancing mitochondrial transportation and cellular energetics could help promote regeneration and function following spinal cord injury.
Researchers have identified a set of drug-like compounds, including a common ingredient in throat lozenges, that can help protect mitochondria from the stresses associated with neurodegenerative diseases.
Researchers tie some cases of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) with a genetic mutation that causes an inability to process milk, leaving the child vulnerable to sudden heart failure. Future studies will explore if a drug called Elamipretide can help reduce cardiac events in children with the mutation.
High-fat diets are not only bad for your waistline, they are also bad for your brain health. A new study reveals high-fat diets contribute to hypothalamic inflammation which occurs long before symptoms of obesity arise.
Mice infected with bacteria that cause mild intestinal infections exhibited Parkinson's like symptoms later in life. The findings provide a pathophysiological model in which intestinal infections may act as a trigger for Parkinson's disease.