Dropping the level of the IL-33 immune molecule increased the number of synapses in the brain. In older mice, ramping up IL-33 helped push the number of new synapses toward a more youthful state.
Microglia help limit infection to the olfactory bulb and protects neurons from damage that could occur as a result of viral infection.
An over-production of eIF4E impairs microglial cells, hampering their ability to effectively prune synapses and leading to autism-like behaviors in male mouse models of ASD.
A new method called Tox-seq found only one sub-group of microglia caused oxidative stress. The gene expression signatures of this sub-group from a mouse model matched patterns observed in cells suspected of causing damage in progressive multiple sclerosis patients. The pattern of gene expression associated with oxidative stress in mouse cells included genes involved in coagulation.
HIV infection leads to increased EIF2 signaling in microglia, astrocytes, and neurons. Study reveals how HIV infection and some antiretrovirals affect cognition and the central nervous system.
In all three types of frontotemporal dementia, researchers found the more the inflammation in each part of the brain, the more harmful the build-up of junk proteins.
Microglia initially protects the blood-brain barrier from damage due to systemic inflammation. However, microglia can alter their behavior and increase the permeability of the blood-brain barrier, thus damaging it.