For the first time in 100 years, life expectancy has failed to increase in the population. For the poorest 10% of women, life expectancy has declined. Mortality rates of those aged between 45 and 49 have increased as a result of suicide and substance abuse.
Pessimistic people are more likely to die earlier from cardiovascular disease and other causes, but not from cancer than those who have a more optimistic outlook on life. However, optimists did not have a greater than average life expectancy.