Glutamate is first released near the AMPA-type glutamate receptors, then released near the NMDA-type receptors immediately after the first signal to activate the switch for synaptic plasticity.
Plumes of glutamate in the brain could explain the onset of migraines with auras, a new study reports.
Low-level exposure to lead during development does not lead to alcohol use disorder, but does alter the neural circuits in a way that if addiction occurs, it makes it harder to refrain from returning to addiction related behaviors.
The retrieval of mitochondria via a feedback loop is vital to sustaining synaptic transmission.
The key to performance and motivation lies within the ratio of glutamine and glutamate in the nucleus accumbens. The ratio of glutamine to glutamate relates specifically to stamina.
Familial hemiplegic migraine type 2 (FHM2) causes a malfunction of astrocytes in the cingulate cortex. Manipulating astrocytes in the cingulate cortex reversed the disfunction, preventing an increase in migraine-like symptoms in mice carrying the FHM2 defect.
Glioma brain tumors alter the function of astrocytes, possibly contributing to seizures many brain cancer patients experience. Astrocytes encasing gliomas exhibit different molecular signatures based on their proximity to the cancer cells. Those directly touching the cancer cells become elongated and swollen, mimicking the astrocyte's response to other epilepsy-related brain injuries.
A single neuron, through its axon, is capable of simultaneously producing different effects in separate areas of the cerebral cortex.