Study reports repeats in genes associated with Fragile X syndrome normally regulate how and when proteins are made in neurons.
Telomere lengthening resulted in structural changes in the brain, including cortical thickening. By contrast, telomere shortening is associated with gray matter reduction, specifically in the precuneus.
HIV can persist in the nervous system, even when the virus is suppressed. Even when the virus is suppressed, neurocognitive problems associated with the infection can persist.
Dozens of genes previously believed to have similar roles across different organisms are actually unique to humans. The genetic codes are for transcription factors, which help control gene activity. The findings may help to explain how humans evolved.