Researchers from Yale University have discovered tow cytokines that could help explain how some people develop PPMS. They report a simple genetic test could be used to identify those most at risk of developing progressive multiple sclerosis.
A new study reports teens faced with chronic family stress have higher blood pressure and worse immune response to bacterial infections. However, those who used cognitive reappraisal had lower blood pressure, despite the pressures they faced.
Inflammation caused by opioid use to both the brain and gut may exacerbate symptoms of negative emotions associated with withdrawal. Targeting the inflammation could help alleviate the negative experiences of opioid withdrawal and prevent dependence.
A new study reports researchers have discovered a brain mechanism that could be a suitable target to prevent addiction and tolerance to opioids.
A new study reports vagus nerve stimulation reduces symptoms of RA, cytokine levels and inflammation.
SARS-CoV-2, the virus responsible for COVID-19, enters human cells by attaching to ACE2 and utilizing TMPRSS2. Drugs that block ACE2 or inhibit the enzyme could help treat the coronavirus, but only during early infection. As the infection progresses, SARS-CoV-2 becomes engulfed in human cells, reducing the number of ACE2 receptors on a cell and leading to an increase of angiotensin II in the blood. Angiotensin II triggers an inflammatory pathway, providing a positive feedback cycle, named IL-6 amplifier, resulting in excessive immune activation and the cytokine storm associated with severe COVID-19.
By fusing a cytokine to a blood protein, researchers have developed a new therapy to help treat multiple sclerosis.
A new report considers how maternal immune activation can affect neurodevelopment in the developing fetus, and concludes the mother's immune response to infection could alone be sufficient enough to cause life long changes in brain architecture, function and behavior in her offspring.
Mounting evidence suggests coronavirus affects the brain, in addition to the lungs. Researchers are examining the threat COVID-19 posses to long term brain health. They speculate maternal inflammation could lead to an increased risk of autism-like behaviors and neurodevelopment deficits in children born to mothers diagnosed with coronavirus. Other studies are exploring how the virus may spread in the nervous system via synaptic transmission.
A new study reveals the LRRK2 genetic mutation may alter cells circulating outside of the brain. Researchers report the mutation may alter how immune cells react to common illnesses, causing an inflammatory reaction in the brain that can lead to the development of Parkinson's disease.