Conolidine, a natural pain killer derived from the pinwheel flower and frequently used in Chinese medicine, interacts with a newly identified opioid receptor that regulates natural opioid peptides produced in the brain.
MRC1+ macrophages are dysfunctional in animal models of neuropathic pain. Stimulating the expression of the anti-inflammatory protein CD163 reduced signs of neuroinflammation in the spinal cords of mice with neuropathic pain.
A newly developed peptide called Tat-P4-(C5)2 is targets and only affects nerve changes that pose a problem resulting in chronic pain. Previous studies have also shown the peptide can also reduce addiction.