Male alcohol consumption before conception was linked to significant deficits in their offspring's brain development, specifically within the neocortex. For mothers-to-be who drink alcohol, the negative outcomes of prenatal alcohol exposure on fetal brain development can be reduced with choline supplementation.
Dopamine D2 receptor overexpression in cholinergic interneurons of the nucleus accumbens may explain why some are more prone to cocaine addiction than others.
Trihexyphenidyl, an anticholinergic medication commonly prescribed for Parkinson's symptoms, appears to alleviate negative memory flashbacks and nightmares experienced by those with PTSD.
The choline transporter protein regulates habituation to smells in fruit fly brains.
Increased choline consumption during pregnancy was associated with better performance in tasks requiring sustained attention in children aged seven. Researchers found doubling the recommended amount of choline by increasing consumption of nuts, eggs, red meats, and fish during pregnancy had the greatest benefits for the developing fetal brain.
Mice with the Val89 choline transporter variant had reduced rates of choline uptake and a diminished capacity to sustain acetylcholine production during attention-demanding conditions. The effect led to decreased cognitive performance when the mice were faced with additional challenges.
Using stimulation, researchers found a direct connection between the vagus nerve and learning centers of the brain. Vagus nerve stimulation, they discovered, increases learning in a healthy nervous system.