Mice with the Val89 choline transporter variant had reduced rates of choline uptake and a diminished capacity to sustain acetylcholine production during attention-demanding conditions. The effect led to decreased cognitive performance when the mice were faced with additional challenges.
Increased choline consumption during pregnancy was associated with better performance in tasks requiring sustained attention in children aged seven. Researchers found doubling the recommended amount of choline by increasing consumption of nuts, eggs, red meats, and fish during pregnancy had the greatest benefits for the developing fetal brain.
The choline transporter protein regulates habituation to smells in fruit fly brains.
Trihexyphenidyl, an anticholinergic medication commonly prescribed for Parkinson's symptoms, appears to alleviate negative memory flashbacks and nightmares experienced by those with PTSD.
Dopamine D2 receptor overexpression in cholinergic interneurons of the nucleus accumbens may explain why some are more prone to cocaine addiction than others.
Male alcohol consumption before conception was linked to significant deficits in their offspring's brain development, specifically within the neocortex. For mothers-to-be who drink alcohol, the negative outcomes of prenatal alcohol exposure on fetal brain development can be reduced with choline supplementation.
Findings show sex-specific baizes in gene expression changes and demonstrate cellular control mechanisms based on microRNA change. The study sheds new light on genetic and neurological changes associated with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.
Taking dietary choline supplements may help to protect the brain from Alzheimer's disease. Choline reduces the activation of microglia which, when overactivated, contribute to neuroinflammation and apoptosis associated with Alzheimer's. Choline also helps block the production of amyloid plaques.
POMC, a gene which regulates the stress response system, and PER2, a gene associated with circadian regulation, are altered in women who drank moderate-to-high amounts of alcohol during pregnancy and their newborns.