By transplanting V2a interneurons, researchers improved respiratory function in mice with spinal cord injuries, a new study reports.
Researchers say that to date, primary transmission methods of concern for coronavirus have been near field transmission via sneezing and coughing, and hand-to-face transportation of the virus after touching infected surfaces. They warn more attention needs to be paid to the inhalation of aerosols generated from breathing and talking.
An opinion article reports on a potential common cause for both SIDS and SUDEP. The reason sudden death may occur is due to a person's inability to wake when CO2 levels in the blood rise, as a result of dysfunctional serotonin neurons in the midbrain.
People with higher levels of anxiety have altered perceptions of their breathing compared to those with lower levels of anxiety. The altered perception of respiration can lead to an increase in feelings of anxiety, researchers report.
For the first time, researchers have successfully stimulated a human amygdala and recorded breathing loss. Their research provides important insight into SUDEP.
Core neurons in the lateral parabrachial nucleus project to the amygdala, an area of the brain associated with fear and emotional processing of pain. Neurons in the shell project to the pre-Bötzinger complex, a region that generates breathing rhythm. Both core and shell neurons influence each other according to inputs from each area, increasing breathing rate when we are in pain or anxious.
Each breath begins with hundreds of individual neurons haphazardly firing at low levels, then quickly synchronizing. The synchronization prompts activity that signals diaphragm and chest muscles to contract, causing expansion and inhalation. As the signal subsides, exhalation occurs.