Core neurons in the lateral parabrachial nucleus project to the amygdala, an area of the brain associated with fear and emotional processing of pain. Neurons in the shell project to the pre-Bötzinger complex, a region that generates breathing rhythm. Both core and shell neurons influence each other according to inputs from each area, increasing breathing rate when we are in pain or anxious.
People with higher levels of anxiety have altered perceptions of their breathing compared to those with lower levels of anxiety. The altered perception of respiration can lead to an increase in feelings of anxiety, researchers report.
A baby's first breath triggers a signaling system in the brainstem that helps support early breathing. The findings shed light on how problems with this neuropeptide system can increase the risk of SIDS.
Researchers say that to date, primary transmission methods of concern for coronavirus have been near field transmission via sneezing and coughing, and hand-to-face transportation of the virus after touching infected surfaces. They warn more attention needs to be paid to the inhalation of aerosols generated from breathing and talking.
On average, women have to work harder to breathe during strenuous exercise than men. The findings not only shed light on how sex may affect exercise dynamics but also the differences in how men and women experience airway disorders, such as asthma and COPD.
A small study of patients with severe COVID-19 symptoms in Wuhan found laying face down was better for the lungs.
Each breath begins with hundreds of individual neurons haphazardly firing at low levels, then quickly synchronizing. The synchronization prompts activity that signals diaphragm and chest muscles to contract, causing expansion and inhalation. As the signal subsides, exhalation occurs.