Researchers confirm ACE inhibitors and ARBS medications may increase the risk of patients with COVID-19 developing more severe symptoms.
Researchers explore why COVID-19 is more deadly compared to the flu and other viruses.
Certain progenitor cells in the bronchi are mainly responsible for producing coronavirus receptors. These cells normally develop into respiratory tract sells linked with cilia, that clear bacteria out of the lungs.
Researchers have mapped the interaction between SARS-CoV-2 proteins and human cells, showing which proteins are being activated and deactivated by coronavirus. The findings reveal how the virus can spread through the human body.
A new study seeks to explain why men infected by coronavirus generally show more severe symptoms and have an increased risk of death over women. Focusing on ACE2 receptors, researchers found the testes, along with the lungs and kidneys, were among areas of the body with the highest ACE2 expression. ACE2 could not be detected in ovarian tissue. The findings back up a previous study that reported male COVID-19 patients experienced impaired testicular function. This suggests the testes may be significantly affected when men develop coronavirus.
Researchers have identified specific cell types that appear to be the main targets of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. Using existing data on the RNA found in different types of cells, researchers were able to identify cells that expressed ACE2 and TMPRSS2, two proteins that assist coronavirus to enter human cells. Cells in the lungs, nasal passage and intestines appear to be the main targets for SARS-CoV-2.
Previous studies report COVID-19 may be present in the testes. Researchers report coronavirus is unlikely to spread via semen, and the chances of the infection being spread through sexual transmission are remote.
The receptor protein ACE2 and the TMPRSS2 protease that can activate SARS-CoV-2 entry are expressed in cells on the inner lining of the nose. Mucus producing goblet cells and ciliated cells in the nose have the highest levels of both proteins, making them the most likely initial infection route for coronavirus. Additional key entry points were found in the cells of the eye's cornea and the intestines. This suggests other points of infection could be via the tear ducts and through fecal-oral transmission.
Males who contract COVID-19 have 2.5 times the death rate of women. Being males is a significant risk factor for worse disease severity, regardless of age. Researchers found a similar trend in data from the 2003 SARS outbreak. The study speculates the reason why males are more prone to negative outcomes of coronavirus is due to levels of ACE2, which is significantly higher in males than females.
Smoking remodels the gene expression of lung cells so that the ACE2 gene is more highly expressed in goblet cells. The effects of smoking on ACE2 pulmonary expression indicates an increase in the overall entry points for coronavirus and increases the risk for viral binding and entry of COVID-19 into the lungs.
SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, can infect intestinal cells and multiple in the gastrointestinal system. When researchers added SARS-CoV-2 to intestinal organoids, they noticed rapid infection. Researchers say in addition to nasal and throat swabs, rectal swabs and stool samples could be key for coronavirus testing.