Parents who joke and pretend with their children are teaching them important life skills, research by the University of Sheffield has revealed.
The study showed that children as young as 16 months old naturally learn the difference between joking and pretending by picking up on their parents’ cues.
It also showed understanding the difference between the two allows children the opportunity to learn, imagine, bond, and think in abstract ways.
Researchers from the University’s Department of Psychology carried out two studies; one involved parents being asked to joke and pretend with their 16 to 20 month old children using actions. Jokes involved misusing objects like putting food on their heads and pretend play included activities like washing hands without soap or water.
In the second study, parents of 20 to 24 month olds were asked to joke and pretend verbally with their toddlers. Pretend play included parents telling their children a round block was a horse and jokes included mismatching items like saying that a toy chicken was a hat.
The research, which was published in Cognitive Science, found parents can offer explicit cues to help distinguish between joke and pretend intention contexts and children, even as young as 16 months old, pick up on those cues.
In both studies parents showed more disbelief and less belief through their language and actions when joking in comparison to pretending.
In response their children showed less belief through their actions and the older children showed less belief through their language.
Dr. Elena Hoicka, from the Department of Psychology, added: “The study shows just how important play is to children’s development. Parents who pretend and joke with their children offer cues to distinguish the difference between the two and toddlers take advantage of these cues to perform.
“For example, if a parent said something like, ‘That’s not really a hat!’ children would realise it was a joke, and not real, and would avoid putting the toy chicken on their head.
“But if parents were pretending that, for example, a block was a horse, they might repeatedly make the block gallop, which would encourage children to do the same, and understand that the block really was a horse in their imagination.”
She added: “The research reveals the process in which toddlers learn to distinguish joking and pretending.
“Knowing how to joke is good for maintaining relationships, thinking outside the box, and enjoying life. Pretending helps children to practice new skills and learn new information.
“So while parents may feel a bit daft putting a toy chicken on their head they can at least console themselves with the knowledge that they are helping their children develop important skills for life.”
Future research projects will include parent surveys on joking and pretending to see how these abilities develop from birth through to three years.
About this neurodevelopment research
Toddlers as young as 16 months old know the difference between pretending and joking
Joking and pretending with your child helps them to develop important life skills
Children learn from silly behaviour such as pretending a toy chicken is a hat
Funding: The study was funded by the Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC).
Source: Clare Parkin – University of Sheffield Image Credit: The image is adapted from the University of Sheffield press release Original Research:Abstract for “Parents Produce Explicit Cues That Help Toddlers Distinguish Joking and Pretending” by W Hamish Mehaffey Elena Hoicka and Jessica Butcher in Cognitive Science. Published online July 21 2015 doi:10.1111/cogs.12264
Parents Produce Explicit Cues That Help Toddlers Distinguish Joking and Pretending
While separate pieces of research found parents offer toddlers cues to express that they are (1) joking and (2) pretending, and that toddlers and preschoolers understand intentions to (1) joke and (2) pretend, it is not yet clear whether parents and toddlers consider joking and pretending to be distinct concepts. This is important as distinguishing these two forms of non-literal acts could open a gateway to understanding the complexities of the non-literal world, as well as the complexities of intentions in general. Two studies found parents offer explicit cues to help 16- to 24-month-olds distinguish pretending and joking. Across an action play study (n = 25) and a verbal play study (n = 40) parents showed more disbelief and less belief through their actions and language when joking versus pretending. Similarly, toddlers showed less belief through their actions, and older toddlers showed less belief through their language. Toddlers’ disbelief could be accounted for by their response to parents’ language and actions. Thus, these studies reveal a mechanism by which toddlers learn to distinguish joking and pretending. Parents offer explicit cues to distinguish these intentions, and toddlers use these cues to guide their own behaviors, which in turn allows toddlers to distinguish these intentional contexts.
“Parents Produce Explicit Cues That Help Toddlers Distinguish Joking and Pretending” by W Hamish Mehaffey Elena Hoicka and Jessica Butcher in Cognitive Science. Published online July 21 2015 doi: 10.1111/cogs.12264