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Proton Pump Inhibitors Do Not Cause Dementia

Summary: A new study could not find a link between the use of proton pump inhibitors for GERD and an increased risk for developing dementia. The findings dispute other studies which claim to have found a link between PPIs and dementia.

Source: American Gastroenterological Association.

Several studies have reported associations between proton-pump inhibitor (PPI) use and dementia. New research published on July 18 in Gastroenterology, the official journal of the American Gastroenterological Association (AGA), puts these claims to rest. The study authors report that there is no convincing evidence to support the suggestion that PPI use increases dementia risk. These findings are based on an analysis of 13,864 participants from the Nurses’ Health Study II who completed testing on cognitive function, which is key predictor of the risk of dementia later in life.

PPIs are widely prescribed for the treatment of acid-related upper gastrointestinal disorders, such as gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). While PPIs are known to effectively treat these conditions, they have received negative publicity in recent years as research has associated PPIs with several adverse outcomes.

“One of the most common questions gastroenterologists receive from their patients is whether PPIs are safe to use, based on the troubling headlines linking PPIs to everything from hip fracture, to dementia, to death,” said study author Andrew T. Chan, MD, MPH, an expert of the American Gastroenterological Association from Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston. “Our new research should provide some reassurance to individuals who require these highly effective medications for long-term treatment.”

This research directly responds to a 2016 pharmacoepidemiologic analysis conducted using a large German health insurance database, which identified an association between dementia and long-term PPI use; however, these findings could not illustrate that PPIs caused dementia. Despite the attention this article received at the time, AGA expressed its concerns on this research at the time of publication.

Image shows an alzheimer's brain.

This research directly responds to a 2016 pharmacoepidemiologic analysis conducted using a large German health insurance database, which identified an association between dementia and long-term PPI use; however, these findings could not illustrate that PPIs caused dementia. NeuroscienceNews.com image is in the public domain.

Three important reminders for patients taking PPIs:

1. Talk to your doctor before making any changes to your medication. You have been prescribed PPIs for a reason, to treat a diagnosed medical condition. You and your doctor can discuss the reason for your prescription, the dose and the timeframe for treatment.

2. Consider life-style modifications that may reduce or eliminate the need for PPIs for long-term use. These may include weight loss, avoiding tobacco or a change in your eating patterns. Your doctor can help you determine the changes that are right for you.

3. Keep in touch with your doctor. Research continues to be done on PPI use. While the latest research and headlines on PPIs may seem scary, current research still recommends that patients who have a diagnosed condition that is helped by PPIs should stay on them, as benefits can outweigh risks.

About this neuroscience research article

Funding: This work was supported by grants UM1 CA176726, R21MH102570, K24DK098311 (ATC), and K01DK110267 (ADJ) from the National Institutes of Health.

Study author Andrew T. Chan, MD, MPH, has served as a consultant for Bayer Healthcare, Pfizer and Aralez Pharmaceuticals. Study author Hamed Khalili, MD, MPH, receives consulting fees from Abbvie Inc., Samsung Bioepis and Takeda Pharmaceuticals. The remaining authors have no conflicts of interest relevant to this research.

Source: Rachel Shubert – American Gastroenterological Association
Image Source: NeuroscienceNews.com image is is in the public domain.
Original Research: Abstract for “Association Between Proton Pump Inhibitor Use and Cognitive Function in Women” by Paul Lochhead, MBChB, PhD, Kaitlin Hagan, MPH, ScD, Amit D. Joshi, MBBS, PhD, Hamed Khalili, MD, MPH, Long H. Nguyen, MD, MS, Francine Grodstein, ScD, and Andrew T. Chan, MD, MPH in Gastroenterology. Published online July 18 2017 doi:10.1053/j.gastro.2017.06.061

Cite This NeuroscienceNews.com Article
American Gastroenterological Association “Proton Pump Inhibitors Do Not Cause Dementia.” NeuroscienceNews. NeuroscienceNews, 21 July 2017.
<http://neurosciencenews.com/ppi-dementia-7146/>.
American Gastroenterological Association (2017, July 21). Proton Pump Inhibitors Do Not Cause Dementia. NeuroscienceNew. Retrieved July 21, 2017 from http://neurosciencenews.com/ppi-dementia-7146/
American Gastroenterological Association “Proton Pump Inhibitors Do Not Cause Dementia.” http://neurosciencenews.com/ppi-dementia-7146/ (accessed July 21, 2017).

Abstract

Association Between Proton Pump Inhibitor Use and Cognitive Function in Women

Background & Aims
Studies have reported associations between proton pump inhibitor (PPI) use and dementia. However, data are lacking on long-term PPI use and cognitive function. We therefore examined associations between PPI use and performance in tests of cognitive function. Because of shared clinical indications, we examined associations for H2 receptor antagonists (H2RAs) as a secondary aim.

Methods
We used prospectively collected data on medication use and other potential risk factors from 13,864 participants in the Nurses’ Health Study II who had completed a self-administered computerized neuropsychological test battery. Multi-variable linear regression models were used to examine associations between medication use and composite scores of psychomotor speed and attention, learning and working memory, and overall cognition.

Results
We observed a modest association between duration of PPI use and scores for psychomotor speed and attention (mean score difference for PPI use of 9–14 yrs vs never users, –0.06; 95% CI, –0.11 to 0.00; Ptrend = .03). After controlling for H2RA use, the magnitude of this score difference was attenuated. Among individuals who did not regularly use PPIs, duration of H2RA use was associated with poorer cognitive scores, with the strongest association apparent for learning and working memory (mean score difference for H2RA users of 9–14 years vs never users, –0.20; 95% CI, –0.32 to –0.08; Ptrend < .001).

Conclusions
In an analysis of data from the Nurses’ Health Study II, we did not observe a convincing association between PPI use and cognitive function. Our data do not support the suggestion that PPI use increases dementia risk. Since our primary hypothesis related to PPI use, our findings for H2RAs should be interpreted with caution.

“Association Between Proton Pump Inhibitor Use and Cognitive Function in Women” by Paul Lochhead, MBChB, PhD, Kaitlin Hagan, MPH, ScD, Amit D. Joshi, MBBS, PhD, Hamed Khalili, MD, MPH, Long H. Nguyen, MD, MS, Francine Grodstein, ScD, and Andrew T. Chan, MD, MPH in Gastroenterology. Published online July 18 2017 doi:10.1053/j.gastro.2017.06.061

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