After inserting a gene into mice that increases choline transporter and as a result increases acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junctions, the engineered mice were able to run on treadmills twice as long as controls without the inserted gene.
The removal of a certain class of potassium channels from the surface of nociceptors is believed to be a key factor in inflammatory pain signaling. Using gene interference to reduce the expression of these specific potassium channels on nociceptors, researchers were able to produce hyperexcitability in nociceptors resembling that seen in inflammatory pain signaling.
Zif proteins have been found to control whether a brain stem cell differentiates into a neuron or renews as a brain stem cell. There are Zif related proteins in humans that may be targeted by new treatments for brain cancer and other diseases.
Two healthy baby girls and a healthy baby boy were born recently after genetic screening study. These babies were the first human babies born that relied on IVF and had each chromosome assessed in each oocyte before IVF. The genetic screening technique used improves on many other methods.
Researchers genetically altered mesenchymal stem cells to create new stem cell lines that showed no signs of aging in culture, did not increase tumor production in animal studies and functioned as healthy mesenchymal cells do.
Neuroscience research published in September's Journal of Neuroscience suggests early life stresses may modify the GAD1 gene, which controls the production of GABA. Through their research on rats, researchers were able to note that those who experienced a lack of affection showed an obstruction within the DNA which controls the GAD1 gene. As it is believed that GABA deficits might be apparent within schizophrenic patients, researchers propose that the modification of GAD1 might determine a child's predisposition to mental illness.
Neuroscientists at USC have discovered that carbonated drinks set off the same pain sensors in the nasal cavity as mustard, albeit at a lower intensity. During experimentation, researchers flowed carbonated saline over a dish containing nerve cells taken from the sensory circuits in the nose and mouth. They discovered that the gas activated a specific cell which serve as general pain sensors and expresses the TRPA1 gene.
Researchers have discovered that disabling the RGS14 gene in mice can make them smarter. When the RGS14 gene was disabled within the CA2 region of the hippocampus, researchers found that mice were better able to remember objects they had explored and learn to navigate mazes better than regular mice.